Engine is a device created to transform one or more types of energy into mechanical energy.Potential energy, thermal energy, chemical energy, electric potential, nuclear energy (from nuclear fission or fusion), and thermal energy (e.g., geothermal) are some of the sources of energy that are readily available.The importance of heat engines is highlighted by the fact that many of these processes use heat as an intermediary type of energy.
A few natural mechanisms, including atmospheric convection cells, transform the heat from the ambient environment into motion
In addition to playing a part in numerous industrial processes like cutting, grinding, crushing, and mixing, mechanical energy is particularly crucial for transportation.
Different thermodynamic mechanisms are used by mechanical heat engines to transform heat into work.
The internal combustion engine is likely the most prevalent example of a mechanical heat engine. In this type of engine, the heat generated during fuel combustion quickly presses the gaseous byproducts of combustion into the combustion chamber, where they expand and move a piston, which turns a crankshaft.
Electric motors, pneumatic motors, and mechanical motors in wind-up toys are other types of engines besides heat engines that employ electrical energy to generate mechanical motion.
Like the myosins in muscle, molecular motors in biological systems use chemical energy to generate forces and, eventually, movement (a chemical motor, but not a heat engine).
The term “air breathing engines” refers to chemical heat engines that use air (ambient atmospheric gas) as a fuel reaction component.
Although there are super-oxidants suitable for use in rockets, such as fluorine, a more powerful oxidant than that owns oxygen, the application needs to obtain heat by non-chemical means, such as through nuclear reactions. Chemical heat engines designed to operate outside Earth’s atmosphere (e.g., rockets, deep submerged submarines) need to carry an additional fuel component called an oxidant.
The key mechanical component that propels a car forward or backward is its engine. Today, there are three different kinds of engines: electric motors, internal combustion engines, and combustion engines. The electric motor won’t be a topic of discussion today. The engine’s history is briefly outlined here.
Any form of motor can be used to move objects, build structures, generate electricity, etc. We’re going to examine the car engine. By using electricity to ignite gas, Jean Joseph LENOIR developed a dilated air engine. Later, this engine was created alongside a German named Nikolaus otto
Alphonse Besu had begun working on the 4-stroke engine cycle (intake, compression, combustion-expansion (engine time), and exhaust) in 1862 and had applied for a patent for it. Since OTTO attempted to register one in 1886, 24 years after our French, he logically declined.
The three fundamental components of an engine are cylinders, pistons, and a crankshaft. We will explain to you how this relates. Thus, they are never in contact, and this allows the proper functioning of its engine.
The pistons are the parts of a circular shape which are related to the cylinder seen above. They allow good combustion for the engine. They work with an up and down motion. When they reach the stop, a spark appears, a combustion is made, and the piston is propelled downwards.
When it is at the bottom, it takes in fuel and air, and propels itself towards the stop.
The online engine
The inline engine was born thanks to Etienne Lenoir in 1859. One sees the easiest engine to identify. As its name suggests, this engine has its cylinders mounted in line (one after the other). This is the type of engine that almost all of us have in our everyday cars.
Only drawback, since the cylinders are linear, it takes up space. It takes up as much space as a V8 for example. In other words, we have twice as many cylinders (4 for those in line, 8 for V8), for the same place.
The big advantage, however, is the construction price. Since it is easy to make, with few parts to hold, it explains its presence in our daily lives. Gasoline or diesel fuel can be used.
The in-line engine used for motorsport is the 6-cylinder engine. Same operation, but with more cylinders, and often placed horizontally to save space vertically.
The flat engine
The first flat engine saw its first day about 126 years ago. By whom was it created? The great Carl BENZ, founder of Mercedes-Benz. It was very quickly imitated by Peugeot and Ford, for example with their “horizontal” engines.
It had a few years of glory, before being taken ahead by the 4-cylinder in-line engine. Nevertheless, it has an undeniable advantage: it does not take up space in height! Something that the 4-cylinder in line cannot do.
The first to use these engines were Citroën, with the 2CV! André Citroën wanted an engine that lasts over time, at a lower price. So he turned to a twin flat and we can say that it worked! He was able to fulfill all his objectives, because inexpensive, he offered incredible longevity to the deuche.
The competitor to our national 2CV is none other than the Beetle. At Volkswagen (the people’s car), the particularity is that for the Beetle, we put the engine in the back of the vehicle. It has sold 20 million copies.
Today it is still used, but among the Japanese with Toyota and its GT86, as well as at Subaru with its BRX. Like what, even 126 years later, we still use the origins of the engine!
On the competition side, and sports car, we go back to Germany, with Porsche which powered its vehicles with flat engines. They created Flats 12 and Flats 16 which could then go up to 880 horsepower! One of the cars being equipped with this engine is the Porsche 917.
Although one can see the advantages of this one, it has disadvantages. The revision and the accessibility of this one are very complicated, and require a great mastery and its expensive cost.
Also, it has an advantage which is also a disadvantage: it takes up space. It is flat, so does not take up depth, but takes up space under the hood!
The V engine
As the name suggests, the V-engine looks like this letter when viewed from the front. It is in fact, two rows of cylinders face to face in the shape of a V. It exists for several machines:
Cars, Motorcycles, Airplanes, The trucks, And generators. Being more compact than an inline engine, it is widely used by competition, such as in F1 for example. The engine manufacturers were able to make a line engine, much shorter with the same power.
However, it takes up space, and the feeling of vibrations is quite present because it is difficult to find a balance to calm them. It also needs a special and precise cooling circuit, or even two water pumps.
The W engine
The big brother of the V engine. We add a third row of cylinders when it is joined or we separate in 2 which gives us 4 rows when it is separated, which will form a W when seen from the front.
It will respond better with a torque that is increased compared to a V engine. On the other hand, it takes up more space, given the addition of the rows of displacements. It’s quite a complex engine, with really particular and difficult cylinder heads in this engine. It also has a very high cost.
This engine will be found in large vehicles such as:
Volkswagen Touareg W12.
Volkswagen Passat W8.
Bentley Continental GT.
Bugatti Veyron 16.4.
Only high-performance vehicles, with a lot of horsepower under the hood. What to certify the power of this engine.
The rotary engine
Mazda’s flagship engine. It was only used by the Japanese brand, since Citroën also tried the experience of the rotary engine. The rotary engine made a name for itself also with the RX8, which caused a lot of problems. Nevertheless, they have been able to make it more reliable, and will return this year in 2022 with the new ranges.
It works with 4 steps:
Thirdly the explosion.
Fourth the exhaust.
There are therefore 4 steps so that the engine is never empty. Indeed, that was Felix Wankel’s will. To achieve this, he invents a system with 1 chamber, and a triangle-shaped rotor that rotates inside the motor.
There are many advantages for this engine. For starters, it’s smaller! There is therefore a significant gain in space, but also a gain in weight. The vibrations are less felt, and even with sound, we hear them less.
But there are downsides. The engine is greedy, it consumed a lot of fuel (about 20% more than a reciprocating piston engine). Its reliability was questioned. Indeed, the sealing left something to be desired. This problem caused a lot of problems with the upper part of the engine.
However, they managed to improve this engine quite well with the RX7 and RX8.
The star engine
For the latter, it is a slightly more complex engine that we are dealing with. It is mainly used in aviation, but some cars have tried to implement it under their hoods. Nevertheless, it is very complicated to adapt it to a car. It is a big, heavy engine, which has a big cost, and which is very complex.
Nevertheless, it is one of the most beautiful engine you will see. Its architectural beauty is incomparable. She also has a very good cycle regularity. Air cooling is a big plus on this engine as well.
Small thing to add concerning the engines, do not forget the oil! You might be surprised if you never have any more!
With CD SPORT, you will have the chance to ride with 4-cylinder engines with a power of 200hp. You can reach a maximum speed of 250 km/h! In addition, since this year 2022, we have been driving with bio ethanol gasoline